Sherburne History Center

Sherburne History Center
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Friday, December 28, 2018

The Super Bowl Blizzard and Sherburne County

The first snow of each year generates discussion about the multitude of blizzards and snowstorms in Minnesota History.  We have the Armistice Day blizzard in 1940, the Easter blizzard in 1968, the Halloween blizzard of 1991.  And now we have the Super Bowl blizzard on 1975. 

The wet snow of January contributed to the challenges
of the Supper Bowl blizzard of 1975
Beginning January 9, and continuing for three days, rain, then freezing rain, then snow blanketed Minnesota.  Minnesota football fans christened the storm the Super Bowl Blizzard.  As the three-day deluge began to subside the Minnesota Vikings faced off against the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl IX. 

Locally, the Vikings loss went unmentioned as local reporters documented the snow storm.  Elk River reported a total of 13 inches of snow and wind up to 40 miles an hour after the three-day storm.  “The first indications of real trouble came when heavy sleet and ice coated electric wires,” the Elk River Star News reported.  “The extra weight coupled with high winds produced many broken wires.” 

As the blizzard continued, county officials determined to closed Highway 10 between Elk River and Big Lake.  “Unfortunately,” the paper reported, “the Highway 10 barricades blew down several times, and a number of trucks and motorists drove on into the teeth of the blizzard only to meet their Waterloo at the overpass between Elk River and Big Lake.”  The paper estimated 25 motorists were stranded during the storm.
View of the Elk River Alliance Church hints at the
depth of the many snow drifts from the blizzard

A particularly harrowing event during the height of the storm involved the medical evacuation of a young boy in Big Lake.  State snow plows and four-wheel drive vehicles were called into service to aid an ambulance in its journey to the Monticello Hospital.   According to the newspaper, the ambulance twice became stuck in snow drifts during the trip.  The boy’s hospital run ended with his delivery at the hospital from the cab of a snow plow. 

Lesser, not so life threatening, inconveniences also resulted from the storm.  The blizzard postponed Funeral services for four local residents in the Elk River area.  A movie fundraiser at the Methodist Church was rescheduled. 
Eventually the snow melted, and life went on.  Yet the snow storm of January 1975 entered the history books as the memorable Super Bowl blizzard. Ranked with the Halloween blizzard, the Easter blizzard and the Armistice Day blizzard, as eventful in the history of Minnesota weather.

Friday, December 21, 2018

Two Immigrant Memories From Sherburne County

Immigrant ship approaching Ellis Island 1906

With the discussions about a “wall” to prevent immigration, it seemed appropriate to explore the histories of Sherburne County residents.  These memories, collected from oral histories at the Sherburne History Center, show immigrants desperate to live in the United States.  Immigrants, one hundred years ago, sought the freedoms in the United States as desperately as immigrants today.  The poem on the Statue of Liberty rings true both today and one hundred years ago: “Give me you tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” 

Here are the memories of two Sherburne County residents, Ella Kringlund and Astrid Moores. 

Ella Kringlund:

I will just briefly say that my father’s parents came across from Germany---they eloped when they were 18 years of age.  They did not have money to pay their transportation across, somehow they got on board ship, they were stowaways and when they were found they had to work doing kitchen work or whatever needed to be done to pay for their fare and the captain married them on board ship.  They were supposed to land in New York City, but there was a storm at sea and they got to Galveston instead.  Then years later they migrated up to Minneapolis and St. Paul.

I also have to tell you about my mother because she actually came to this country illegally.  She was the first of five children in the family and her father, my grandfather, was killed in the Franco-Prussian War and Grandma was left with them; four small children and no pension.  So Grandma had to work out and my mother who was 5 years old at the time was the big girl that had to look after the younger children in the family.  And one time when Mama had to go out for something, one of the younger children in the house must have played with matches and started a fire and the house burned down.

After that there was no house for them to live in so the children had to be farmed out, there was no home for them anymore and my mother did not have an easy life.  She wanted to come to America because she had heard from other people that life was better here.  She heard that life was better.  She had a friend from her hometown who had come to Canada and was working in Quebec, Canada and this friend had her mother in Germany.  My mother had to go under the false pretenses that she was this other woman’s daughter to bring her across, ‘cause you had to have somebody with you and you had to have somebody in either Canada or the United States to whom you were going.  You couldn’t just decide that you were going to go to that country, you had to have somebody that you could go to.  So my mother went to Quebec, Canada with this lady and she stayed there one winter and she said she nearly froze to death, because it’s never so cold in Germany as it is in Canada or in the United States----northern United States. 

Then she had a cousin living in Howard Lake, MN and he found out where she was-----they were very close friends and he saw to it that she got here to MN and somehow she met my father and maybe I should just throw in a little bit about their wedding day, because this was something that always intrigued me.  They were married on the 28th of December 1891 to my father and they were married in Minneapolis.  At that time they did have streetcar service and my father met my mother at some designated place to go to the minister to be married and at that time, the streetcars didn’t come to a complete stop, you had to be skillful enough to grab and hang on and my father was probably not the most chivalrous young man.  He saw to it that he got on and my mother was left behind and she had to wait until the next streetcar came along.  She knew where she was supposed to go, and Dad had gotten off where he was supposed to go, but my father had to wait for the next streetcar to come along before my mother and he were reunited to go in for the wedding ceremony.  That was just one of the funny little things that happened that my mother often told us about.

Astrid Moores:

I came with my folks in April 1915 on account of the World War.  My dad was called into service for Sweden, so he left Sweden.  We took the ship from Copenhagen. We came from Malmer [sic] in Sweden, and we just went over to Copenhagen and from there to Oslo, Norway.  it was a stormy trip and we were stopped by an English submarine.  And they had to come aboard.  They looked through the freight for spies.  Otherwise we got sea sick.   

All we had was one trunk and a couple of suitcases. 
We came to my mother’s brother in Harvard, IL and his name was Carl Johnson.  We met a couple on the boat that had just gone to Sweden for a visit.  We found out that they used to live where we used to live.  “If you folks don’t like it with your brother,” she said, “you are welcome to come to our place, Birch Lake.”  They had two houses; they lived in one and we could have the other one until we got settled.  So about two months later, we did. 

My dad worked on the railroad section in Big Lake, laying tracks and things like that.  He worked there until he retired.

Friday, December 14, 2018

Pearl Harbor and the Men From Elk River

Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

After the attack at Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, the country suffered a level of crisis not experienced in eons.  For many, the original concern arose from not knowing of the survival of family members serving and stationed in Hawaii.  Some families in Sherburne County experienced this anxiety. 

The survival of Orville Burandt and Charles Nogle, both residents near Elk River, remained unknown for some time in 1941.  Their families and friends remained in limbo for several weeks after the initial attacks.

Orville Burandt, serving in the navy since early in 1941 sent information to the Sherburne County Star News about his service.  He arrived in Peral Harbor in August 1941.  According to the newspaper report Burandt served in the communications office of the Flag of Patrol Wing 2.  His duties included forwarding communications to and from patrol planes.  Two weeks after the attack on Pearl Harbor, news finally arrived in Elk River that Orville Burandt was “all right and feeling fine.” 

The life of Charles Nogle, however, remained in question.  Rumors reported Nogle as killed or possibly taken prisoner at Guam in late 1941.  Japanese forces invaded Guam the day after Pearl Harbor, seizing control of the island in a matter of a few days.  The local newspapers reported the early attacks against the United States.  Yet, the newspapers failed to verify the rumors regarding the soldiers.  What is known: Nogle returned from the war to Sherburne County In 1946.  His service record remained unreported. 

Rumors remained a common source of information throughout the war. A letter published in the Sherburne County Star News reinforced, however, the inaccuracies of so many rumors.  Stanley Wheaton, stationed at Felts Field, Washington State, in 1941, reminded newspapers readers of the rumors and their inaccuracies.  “The army is the greatest place for rumors to get started,” he wrote.  “And when they start they fly thick and fast.” 

With the attack at Pearl Harbor, the lives of so many Sherburne County residents fell into turmoil.  Men who were drafted and their families all suffered a unique level of crisis until the men returned home.

Thursday, November 29, 2018

Holidays and Their Food Traditions

Beginning with Thanksgiving and continuing to Christmas and New Year’s Day celebrations, food remains a constant topic of discussion.  It seems appropriate, then, to explore food traditions during the holiday season.  Why do we serve turkey during the holidays?  In Minnesota, why is lutefisk a tradition in so many households?  Whatever happened to the traditional Christmas goose?  

A quick search of the internet provides some leads to the important question of why these foods are served on the holidays.

Lutefisk, white fish soaked in lye, is long a tradition of Norwegian foodways.  My favorite explanation of the importance of lutefisk suggests the fish reinforce the traditional image of the sturdy, strong Norwegian immigrants.  One story claims Irishmen in an effort to drive off invading Norsemen tried to poison a supply of dried white fish by pouring lye over a barrel of the fish.  By the time the poison was discovered, starving Norwegians had no choice but to wash the lye from the fish and eat.  Our hearty Norwegian ancestors discovered the fish were not spoiled and actually were palatable.  From that point on, to prove their heartiness and to memorialize the strength of their ancestors, Norwegians served lye soaked white fish, lutefisk, during the cold winter months are around Christmas.  And, tradition as born. 

The story of lutefisk may be apocryphal, the traditions around turkey and the Christmas goose also remain steeped in vague and far-fetched lore.  Most food historians agree, Pilgrims did not serve Turkey at the first Thanksgiving.  In all likelihood, turkey as the center of Thanksgiving feasts emerged from the imagination of New England author Sarah Josepha Hale.  During the Civil War, as part of her campaign to make Thanksgiving a national holiday, Sarah Hale described the ideal Thanksgiving banquet with turkey as the centerpiece. 

Pragmatists may also favor turkey at Thanksgiving.  Unlike chickens or cattle, turkeys on a farm have limited utilitarian value.  Chickens provide eggs.  Cows produce milk.  Turkeys provide less produce on a farm.  In addition, the bird will feed a large family.

Like turkeys, the end of the Christmas Goose tradition can be traced back to the influences of literature in 19th Century Britain and the United States.  According to Slate magazine, and other internet sources, the concept of a turkey as a holiday necessity gained prominence after the publication in 1832 of Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol.  At the end of this story (spoiler alert!) Scrooge sends the Cratchit family a Christmas turkey to replace the Christmas goose they have planned.  Dickens, intentionally or not, suggested a Christmas goose symbolized a poor man’s dinner.  Goose was served only when a family could not afford the more exotic and expensive Christmas turkey. 

There we go.  Food traditions during the holidays reinforce a folklore and cultural practices beyond a celebration of thanksgiving and overindulgence.  Exploring the folklore and food traditions of our ancestors provides enlightening understanding of holidays past.  Now we have an opportunity to closely consider the traditions behind the foods we eat during the holidays.  

Tuesday, October 23, 2018

More About Sherburne County Depression Era Programs

Young men, most likely from the NYA, taking a break
 from working on the Handke Stadium, a joint NYC and
WPA project in Elk River

Recent blog posts regarding Depression era programs in Sherburne County suggest a number of county residents received federal assistance.  Further reading the pages of the county newspaper, the Sherburne County Star News, shows the county nearly dependent on federal programs for survival. 

Several articles in the newspapers report the Sherburne County farming community received significant support from Franklin Roosevelt’s economic programs.  In 1940 and 1941 nearly 90 percent of the farms in Sherburne County received benefits from the Agriculture Adjustment Administration.  In 1941, 1630 farms in Sherburne County, out of a total of 1822 farms, received some payments from the AAA programs. 

In addition to farm aid, depression era programs included the construction around Handke Stadium.  The Works Progress Administration (the WPA) funded a variety of road construction and gravel paving projects throughout Sherburne county.  The federal program also funded construction of a 115-foot steel and concrete bridge in Big Lake.  The WPA also funded a hot lunch program at Elk River school.  The program fed 125 children.  The WPA also funded book repair programs and community education programs in Sherburne County. 

Simple mental calculations show the amount of federal aid spent in Sherburne County significantly assisted the community in recovering from the 1930s economic depression.  With the WPA, AAA, CCC, and NYA the county clearly received significant benefits and assistance, assistance impossible to fully calculate.

Saturday, October 6, 2018

Information Updates

Yet, another follow-up detail from the pages of the Sherburne County Star News. 

Recent research noted a depression era program offering mattresses to farm families in the county.  A program offering low income families an opportunity to “make your own mattresses.”

Although this image originates from the mattress program
 in New Orleans, it provides an understanding of the entire
mattress making process. 
Photo courtesy of the National Archives
In a follow-up article from 1941, the newspaper reported families requested and made 470 pieces of bedding in Sherburne County during the first six months of the year.  Operating out of Bowles' Garage in Zimmerman and the Clear Lake Town Hall, the program provided quite a few families with mattresses in this brief aid experiment.  Under the direction of Mrs. Charles Hetrick in Zimmerman and Mrs. John Leitha in Clear Lake, the Sherburne County Extension Office taught families how to make the mattresses and expedited the process to provide comfortable sleeping for county residents. 

Although the program offered opportunity to low income families, “Make Your Own Mattresses” developed as a plan to reduce surplus cotton supplies in the Southern United States.   Although the plan originated with the Agriculture Adjustment Administration, a second, lesser known agency provided assistance in the program. 

The National Youth Administration, another New deal agency, provided job training and work to young people between the ages of 16 and 25.  The N.Y.A. uniquely trained women and men for work outside of the home.  In the case of the “Make Your Own Mattress” program the N.Y.A. employees assisted in the construction and sewing of the mattresses.

Friday, September 28, 2018

Sherburne County Prepares for World War Two

Although the United States did not enter World War Two until December 1941, the government instituted preparations for war as early as 1940.  The plans for war impacted Sherburne County as the army drafted a number of young men in the county.  The local newspaper, Sherburne County Star News reported the draft calls and also noted national efforts to get ready for war. 

Friday, September 7, 2018

Giant Visits Elk River

Robert Wadlow strikes a
pose with the
Greupner brothers during
his promotional stop in Elk River

Business relies on publicity.  In 1939, Greupner Shoe Store carried this adage to an unusual end. Appearing to promote Peters Shoe Company, and the local distributor: Greupner Shoes, the tallest man in the world arrived in Elk River.

Robert Wadlow, of Illinois, spent a day in August 1939, in Elk River.  He busied himself signing autographs and promoting the quality footwear of Peters’ Shoes.  Pointing out his own shoes, Wadlow noted the size as 37AA. 

Using a cane and braces to move through the city, Wadlow struck a variety of poses beside individuals and automobiles to illustrate his great height.  On the day of his visit, the Sherburne County Star News measured him at 8 feet, 9 ½ inches.  A year later, at his death he was measured at 8 feet 11 inches. 

During his visit to Elk River, his most memorable pose provided comparison to the height of William and Fred Greupner.  The newspaper reported Wadlow as the “giant as big as is claimed.” 

The paper concluded the report by congratulating the Greupner brothers for the enterprising promotion in bringing Wadlow to Elk River and the publicity for Greupner shoes and for Elk River.

Friday, August 31, 2018

"Make Your Own Mattress" in Sherburne County

“Make Your Own Mattress:” served as a program developed by the United States Department of Agriculture in the Fall 1940 to eliminate a cotton surplus from the South.  The USDA targeted Sherburne County as a potential location to benefit from the program.  Although small in economic impact, it provided some aid to local families.

According to reports from Washington. D. C., an over-abundance of cotton hit the market in the fall of 1940.  The Agriculture Adjustment Administration, a depression era program to help farmers, created the “Make Your Own Mattress” program to reduce the cotton surplus.

The preliminary plans reported by the Sherburne County Star News, noted an undisclosed warehouse will store cotton and “good grade ticking” so that individuals might sew their own mattresses.  The government developed the program for low income, rural families in Minnesota.  Income could not exceed $500 for a family of four and households received one mattress for two household members, not to exceed three of the mattresses.

Adult family members paid a fee of one dollar to cover the cost of needles and thread, the newspaper reported.  The families worked in the warehouse as a team to sew their own mattresses and take them home.  The County Extension Office and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration provided trained instructors to supervise the manufacturing process.  

Although a minor event in the greater activities of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the “Make Your Own Mattress” program serves as another example of the multitude of Depression Era economic experiments to aid Sherburne County.  Although smaller than the WPA or the CCC, “Make Your Own Mattress” and other AAA projects certainly provided significant aid to the county.

Friday, August 24, 2018

Electricity Expands in Sherburne County

demand for electricity in rural Sherburne County reached a fevered pitch in the last years of the 1930s.  Reading ads in the Sherburne County Star News reveals a rising demand for electricity in areas immediately around Elk River.  Although power did not reach every corner of Sherburne county until the 1950s, the pre-war period witnessed a rising demand.

Advertising in the Sherburne County Star News in 1938, 39 and 1940.

Friday, August 10, 2018

WW II Draft Explained to Sherburne County

History describes the draft in World War Two as an arbitrary, straight-forward, yet fair method of selecting young me to serve in the armed forces.  We all understand men between the ages of 21 and 45 registered for the draft.  Local draft boards would determine the fitness of each man and his ability to serve.  A man could be excused from service for several reasons: family and dependents or possibly essential occupations.  Yet rarely is the arbitrary nature of the draft explained. 

Each man receives a number.  The numbers are drawn from a lottery in Washington, D.C.  But, how are these numbers assigned?  And, how does Washington determine the quota for each state? 

Shortly after the creation of the draft process in 1940, the Sherburne County Star News explained the process to readers.  According to the newspaper, local draft board registered and examined between 6,000 and 6,500 men.  Based on the population of Sherburne county in 1940, in all likelihood, one draft board examined the entire county.  After all men were registered, the local board shuffled the cards and assigned numbers to each card.  When young men speak of their draft number, this is the number they reference. 

During the process, the board placed each potential soldier into four categories:
1-      available for immediate service.
2-      Deferred as a result of an essential occupation
3-      Deferred because of family and dependents
4-      Deferred by law, such as legislators, judges and others.

Drafted men received an examination to determine their physical ability to serve.  If the quota, assigned to the state and the local draft board, could not be met by men available for immediate service, the board then drafted from the deferment categories.

Washington D.C. assigned a quota to each state.  The number took into consideration the population and the number of men already serving in the army or navy. 

The World War Two draft started October 1940.  The requirements quietly expanded so the men ages 18 to 45 eventually registered for the draft.  The arbitrary assignment of numbers provided a sense of fairness to the draft, something that had plagued earlier call-ups from wars dating back to the Civil War. 

The World War Two draft, the first peace time draft enacted in the United States, provided an equitable method to build an army.  By the end of the war, the United states armed forces totaled 16 million.  Almost 11 percent of the total population served.  The draft, with the limited deferments, provided an equitable method to call men into war. 

Saturday, August 4, 2018

The Times they Are Changin'

You have to read alot of verbiage, yet the advertising in the Sherburne County Star News (in 1940) documents some interesting changes in the county. Electricity reached out to the citizens of Sherburne County to the point they need to consider re-wiring their homes.  Meanwhile, the Bank of Elk River urges their customers to save a trip into the bank, and bank by mail.  "We'll give the same careful attention as if you came in person." 

Reading the advertising from a different era reveals a variety of changes to modern life.

Friday, June 29, 2018

Recognizing National Camera Day

Today, June 29, we recognize National Camera Day.  A day to commemorate the camera, its invention, and the photographs and images cameras create.  For historians and history museums, the camera provides important evidence and resources that help document life in the past.  In honor of this momentous day, we provide images from the collections of the Sherburne History Center (dated to approximately 1880) and samples of cameras (dated much later in time) that made this documentation possible.

None of these photographs have been identified.
Details within each photo assist in dating the images

Friday, June 22, 2018

Miss Elk River 1939: Promoting the Community

Beauty contests have been the rage of popularity in the United States.  In 1939, while the country emerged from economic doldrums, the Miss Elk River beauty contest gained the enthusiastic attention of Sherburne County.  The wave of popularity continued into 1940 as Miss Margaret Spence represented the community at the Miss Minnesota contest. 

The contest in Elk River presented an unusually popular spectacle. “The contest attracted to Elk River one of the largest crowds seen here for a long time,” the Sherburne County Star News reported.   Ticket sales required a second and third show to entertain everyone interested in the pageant.  Unfortunately, news reports failed to detail the talent portion of the contest.  Yet, the reports emphasized the poise and charm of all the contestants as they presented themselves to judges. 

Miss Spence went on to compete in the Miss Minnesota Pageant 1940, staged near Marshall, Minnesota.  The reports do not note Miss Spence’s placement.  The winner of Miss Minnesota 1940, Virginia Kepler, hailed from Minneapolis. 

Business leaders sponsored the Elk River contest and covered all expenses for Miss Spence to continue in the state contest.  Clearly, the merchants sponsored the program to promote Elk River and boost the local economy.  An event that succeeded in bringing money and visitors into Elk River for at least one day in 1939.

Friday, June 1, 2018

Recognizing National Donut Day

National Donut Day originated by the Salvation Army in 1938.  A means to recognize all of their members that served donuts to soldiers during World War One.  The Salvation Army served more than donuts to soldiers.  According to Wikipedia, volunteers established huts near the front lines in France to serve baked goods to U. S. troops. 

National Donut Day began as a fundraising event for the Salvation Army, and remains a source of income to this day. 

In honor of National Donut Day, here at the Sherburne History Center we publish this photo of Bake Anderson and his Bakery in Elk River.  From a different time than the World War One volunteers; Bake Anderson provide culinary delights to a generation of Elk River.

Friday, May 25, 2018

Technology Provides Interesting Improvements to Sherburne Farms

Improving technology significantly impacted Sherburne County in the 1930s.  Increasing access to electricity made life so much easier for local farmers.  The local telephone company promised a telephone in the house could save your life.  Electric refrigerators reduced waste caused by the less functional ice box, the new machines also provided “26 percent more storage space.”  Perhaps the most significant advances in technology allowed farmers more time and greater productivity. 

The advertising for new farm equipment seemed magical in the enhanced production the machines provided.  The Allis-Chalmers Sherburne County Star News advertising Allis-Chalmers tractors in March 1938, promised “work just melts away.”  The ad promised “with an air-tired WC you plow up to 5 miles an hour.”  With this speed it was like adding extra equipment to a “slower outfit.” 

The Allis-Chalmers ad alluded to other technological improvements.  In advertising later in the month, the newspaper praised the virtues of rubber tires over steel wheels.  According to the advertising, rubber tires reduced costs, saved money of repairs, and increased productivity.  Clearly, new air-tired tractors, with greater speeds could only help the farmers of Sherburne County. 

New technology in the household and on the farm made life so much better for Sherburne County residents during this age of new development.

Saturday, May 12, 2018

Shadick's Yet Another Elk River Institution

Summer’s beginning, memories of luxurious heat and the pleasure of cold ice cream springs to mind.  Memories takes us back in time, one constant fixture of summer in Elk River continuously comes to mind: Shadick’s Confectionary.

Opening in 1928 and remaining on Main Street until 1954, Ernie Shadick introduced new and unusual treats to the Elk River palate, providing sweet flavored relief from summer heat.  Yet, his early life in Anoka County gave no indication Ernie L. Shadick was destined to operate the sweet treat institution in Elk River. 

Born in 1899 to Herbert and Bertha Shadick, he spent his early life in and around St. Francis.  He served in the Army Air Corps during World War One.  Discharged December 1918, after ten years in Minneapolis, he found his way to Main Street, Elk River. 

Pineapple, one of the many
unique flavors offered up at
Shadick's in 1938
Beginning in 1928, Shadick purchased and modernized the Riverside Confectionary in downtown Elk River.  In 1931, the Sherburne County Star News noted the Riverside, under the ownership of Shadick kept “a large number of ice compartments full of different flavored ice cream.”  The store also improved the ice cream freezers.  A move that allowed even more variety of uniquely flavored ice.  The newspaper noted, the new equipment manufactured “brick ice cream with fancy centers, fresh fruit ice cream, sherbets, malted milks and ices.”  The machine also guaranteed production “under the most sanitary conditions.”  As the company improved the store name evolved, often referred simply as Shadick’s. 

Still later in his career, Ernie Shadick created a popcorn phenomenon.  In 1937, he purchased a popcorn machine and proceeded to sell over four tons of popcorn in the first twelve months.  Shadick’s popcorn, the newspaper claimed, “sold throughout Minnesota, and is a popular product,” found everywhere in the state. 

In the 1940s, in spite of restrictions and rationing, Shadick’s Confectionary continued to offer quality treats in Elk River.  The shop remained in place until 1954, when Ernie Shadick sold his enterprise.  After the sale, an institution in Elk River slowly faded so that only the memories of chocolate ice cream and big bags of popcorn from Shadick’s Confectionary stir in our mind as spring heats into summer.

Friday, May 4, 2018

Improved Roads Create a Need for Speed

Transportation advertising found in the
Sherburne County Star News, 1938
Country roads became smooth bands of pavement throughout Minnesota in the 1920s. As gravel and mud disappeared, replaced by sleek, flat thoroughfares, roads generated a new need for speed and power.  Automobiles graduated from the small buggy model-T’s to the V-8 power of Ford and Chevrolet. 

Newspapers in the 1930s witnessed a dramatic change in the object of advertising.  No longer the small cars or buggies.  With the completion of the Jefferson Highway through Sherburne County, and roads running north, the Sherburne County Star News began advertising what must have seemed like truly powerful machines of transportation.

Deluxe Ford V-8’s “bigger and more luxurious than any previous Ford V-8,” the newspapers advertised.  Delivered for only $802, “why pay more” the ads wondered.  Chevy and Buick also promised greater power in their automobiles.  In addition, they offered new improvements and options such as: a glove compartment, hydraulic brakes, three ashtrays, a spare wheel, and 2 tail lights.

The improved highway system gave justification to greater speed and more luxury in automobiles.  Yet, probably unforeseen by transportation planners, the need for speed marked a significant change in viewpoint for the residents of Sherburne county. 

Ironically, the newspapers documented another change.  In the same pages urging “buy your modern car now!” Harold Caley urged framers “it’s a good time to look over your harness before spring work starts.”  Some traditions died more slowly than others.

Friday, April 13, 2018

Weather Extremes 1936 Caused Major Challenges to Sherburne Farmers

Weather extremes, the newspapers documented in 1936, wreaked havoc in Sherburne County communities.  Floods and high water in April and a ten-week drouth in August the weather played a significant role in life during a bad year in the 1930s economic depression.

The headlines of the Sherburne County Star News, in April 1936, reported high water marks on the Elk River.  Camp Cozy suffered the greatest catastrophe.  The newspaper reported flooding and ice flows destroyed footbridges crossing the Elk River.  High water destroyed cabins along the river.  Yet, these reports seemed only a precursor to the weather extremes of later in the year. 

In the summer months, heat waves burned crops and killed people in the upper Midwest.  The St Paul newspapers in the summer 1936 reported 100 people dying from heat.  Newspapers noted the heat allowed men to fry eggs on the city pavement.  The heat in Sherburne County seemed lower, yet still destructive.  A ten-week drouth ruined crops throughout the farming communities of Sherburne County. 

The county newspaper reported a lack of rain from June to August 1936.  The heat seemed so oppressive entire families slept outdoors to possibly catch an evening breeze.  By August 13, the newspaper reported “66 days without an appreciable rain.”  When it finally rained, hailstorms wiped out any crops that might have survived. 

On a positive note, the newspapers reported a good hay crop.  Dairy and cattle farmers may survive the drouth as indications suggested farmers held on to a surplus of hay from 1935 and managed an early harvest in 1936. 

A reprieve from extreme weather conditions in September provided relief to the county.  Along with aid from WPA programs, farmers in Sherburne County survived another season of weather extremes.

Friday, April 6, 2018

Veteran Bonus Impact Reached Deep into the county

World War Adjusted Compensation, billion dollar words that generated 20 years of controversy and bloodshed in the United States.  Although Sherburne witnessed no violent protest, the law passed in 1924 impacted Elk River and the county for a generation. 

In 1924, Congress pass legislation awarding veterans of the World War a bonus for their service.  Veterans received promises of bonds to be paid after 20 years maturity.  President Calvin Coolidge opposed the legislation, arguing “patriotism bought and paid for is not patriotism.”  Despite his veto, Congress passed the World War Adjusted Compensation Act, promising veterans money in twenty years. 

The arrival of the economic depression in the 1930s, unemployed and homeless veterans asked for their money earlier than promised.  In 1932, Bonus Army protests in Washington, D.C. led to riots and the deaths of two veterans.  In 1936, Congress passed a new legislation promising the veterans their money. 

In Sherburne County, the promised money reached an estimated 300 veterans.  The Sherburne County Star News estimated the county veterans would receive $181,000.  Over a third of that money, $75,000 would be paid to Elk River veterans. 

With the assistance of American Legion Posts throughout the county, veterans applied for, and received bonds from the Federal government.  The vets redeemed the bonds at any post office or bank.  
In 1936, in the midst of the economic crisis; unemployment high; and civilian Conservation Corps and the WPA maintaining projects in the county, this monetary windfall surely delivered hope to a number of Sherburne County residents. The full amount paid to Sherburne County veterans remains unknown, the implied economic impact played a significant role for Sherburne County veterans and their families.

Thursday, March 29, 2018

Depression Era Relief: A Tricky Challenge

Depression era relief programs required unique enforcement skills in 1935.  This became apparent from newspaper reports in the Sherburne County Star News in the spring of that year.

In May 1935 the local newspaper urged local farmers and other county residents to report any relief recipients turning down opportunities to work.  “All clients who refuse work when it is offered are to be taken off relief rolls,” the paper reported.  According to the news reports, county residents remaine3d on the relief rolls while supplementing their income with egg and dairy sales.  “relief is being given only as emergency relief,” the paper reminded.  “As soon as a family’s income is larger than their budget, they will be taken off relief.”
WPA construction crew in Handke Stadium circa 1935
In farming communities throughout Minnesota federal investigators found families willing to receive federal relief and farm income at the same time.  “A concerted drive is being put on throughout the state to shut this down.”  The paper went on to remind readers receiving relief while receiving regular income constituted a fraud against the federal government.  “In many cases these people are being brought into court.” 

Yet, in spite of the challenges with relief programs in all Minnesota, a desperate need for aid remained in Sherburne County.  In the same year, 1935, over 4800 men and women worked on relief jobs in the Sherburne County-St. Cloud district.  Jobs included work like the WPA project at Handke Pit, and Civilian Conservation Corps jobs throughout the state.  In the month of December 1934, 116 people worked on relief project in Sherburne County. 

Providing relief while enforcing federal limitations on that relief presented a unique challenge in Minnesota.  At a time when residents desperately needed aid the federal government came through with assistance while minimizing the duplicity.

Saturday, March 24, 2018

Advertising in Elk River

Some interesting advertisements in the Sherburne County Star News in 1934 and 1935 give us a sense of life and times in the county: 

With the rising standard of living, it would appear the telephone is becoming more of a necessity and less of a luxury in the daily lives of the people of Sherburne County.

Saturday, March 17, 2018

Cater Family Memories

Charcoal Print of Joshua Cater, in the
collections of the Sherburne History Center

The Cater Family served a prominent role in the settlement and development of Sherburne County.  Settling in the area of Haven Township in 1860, Joshua Otis Cater and his descendants contributed significantly to the early history of the county.  Lottie Cater Davis, the granddaughter of Joshua Cater, the daughter of Levi Woodbury Cater, provided an oral history to the Sherburne History Center, remembering some of the early settlement:

My dad farmed in a big way—he had over 1,000 acres of land.  We had an older house in Becker, south of here on Highway 10.  I was born in the old house in 1896.  When I was four, my dad wasn’t working and he built that great big house.  We had that house built in 1900 and moved in there.  I can remember when there we ten buildings on that farm, right in the yard.

They could buy land for five dollars and acre, but to get that $5, I don’t know how the young people today would do it.  They raised hogs—they had to raise the corn by hand.  Cut it by hand and raise the hogs, butcher them and haul them to what was then Pig’s Eye, (St. Paul) and sell them for five cents a pound.  It took a 100 pound hog to buy one acre of land.

My grandmother made butter at first.  Her job was taking care of the milk and cream.  They set flat pans—great big flat pans—in the basement.  She would skim off the cream, churn it and pack it in her crocks with a layer of salt on top.  Then they would haul a whole load to St. Paul.

Up north here, my dad had 160 acres.  They made tons and tons of hay out there and Grandpa sold it—a lot of it went to the place where the stagecoach stopped in St. Cloud—they sold lots of it there.  

Grandpa was quite a poet.  Any little thing that kind of amused him.  He lived with us over here the last part of the time and every once in a while he would come out with a little smile on his face.  My mother and I would know that he had made a poem.  Just any unusual incident and he would make up a poem.